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                                                                                                 BREAK UP OF SYLLABUS

                                                                                                DEPATMENT OF BOTANY

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                                                                                             B.Sc (Honours) Botany Part I

Paper I                                                                                                   Full Marks: 70

 

Sl. No.

Name of the Topic

Assigned Teacher

  1.  

Phycology

 

Occurrence and distribution ; range of thallus structure ; economic and ecological importance

SS

 

Classification ; general characters and life cycles of typical genera of Chlorophyta (Zygnema,Oedogonium, Charaand Trentepohlia), Xanthophyta (Vaucheria), Phaeophyta (Ectocarpus and Fucus), and Rhodophyta (Batrachospermum and Polysiphonia). General account of Cyanophyta and Bacillariophyta.

SS

 

Origin and evolution of sex.

SS

  1.  

Mycology

 

Classification (Ainsworth’s); fungal hyphae and their modifications; cell wall; nutrition; spore forms; life cycle patterns and reproduction.

SS

 

Diagnostic characters of Myxomycotina, Mastigomycotina, Zygomycotina, Ascomycotina, Basidiomycotina, and Deuteromycotina; life cycles of Phytophthora, Rhizopus, Saccharomyces, Eurotium, Neurospora, Peziza, Puccinia, andAgaricus.

SS

 

Mycorrhiza: ecto- and endo-mycorrhiza; their role in agriculture and forestry.

Mushroom: cultivation and food value

Lichens: general account; ecological and economic importance.

SS

  1.  

Bryology

 

Classification; habit and habitat; morphology and structural organization of gametophytes and sporophytes; reproductive mechanisms; trends in evolution in main groups; origin.

SS

 

Life cycles of Riccia, Lycopodium, Athoceros, Sphagnum, andFunaria

SS

 

Ecological aspects and economic importance                                                                                                                     SS

      iv)

Pteridology

 

Classification and general features; origin-telome theory; stelar evolution; heterospory and seed habit.

      KKT

 

Life history of Psilotum, Lycopodium, Selaginella, Isoetes, Eqyisetum, Ophioglossum, Marsilea, and Adiantum

      KKT

 

General account of fossil genera- Rhynia, Psilophyton, Lepidodendron, Lepidocarpon, Calamities, and Archaeopteris.

      KKT

 

                      Paper- II                                                                                                       Full marks: 70

 

 

 

SL.

                                                                       Name of the topic

Assigned Teacher

i)

Gymnology

 

 

Classification; ontogeny and structure of seed; evolution of seed habit; economic importance.

KKT

 

Life history of  Cycas, Pinus, Ephedra, and Gnetum

KKT

ii)

Palaeobotany

 

 

General account of fossil groups.

KKT

 

Fossil types- Williamsonia, Cordaites, Glossopteris; nomenclature; process of fossilization.

KKT

 

Geological time scale; and major events of plant life through geological times.

KKT

 

Methods of determination of age of fossils.

KKT

iii)

Morphology

 

 

Flower: cohesion; adhesion; aestivation; ovule types; placentation; floral formula; floral diagram.

SS

 

Concepts of flower asa modified shoot

SS

 

Pollination: types and contrivances

SS

 

Fruits and seeds: general concept, types and dispersal

SS

 

Embryology: microsporogenesis; megasporogenesis; microgametogenesis; megagametogenesis; development and types of embyo sacs; fertilization; development of embryo in dicot; endosperm development and its types

SS

iv)

Anatomy

 

 

Meristems and development: shoot apical meristem; root apical meristem; lateral meristems and their functions; theories of origin.

SS

 

Epidermis and its emergences; stomatal types and ontogeny.

SS

 

Range of form and structure of stem,leaf and root; their tissues and functions; stelar types and evolution; root-stem transition

SS

 

Secondary body of the plant: vascular cambium; secondary xylem; secondary phloem; periderm.

SS

 

Anomalous secondary growth with examples.

SS

 

                    Paper-III (Practical)                                                                               Full marks-60

 

SL.

                                                                  Name of the topic

Assigned Teacher

i)

Phycology

Study of representative genera from different classes such as Anaebena, Nostoc, Volvox, Oscillatoria, Oedogonium, Chara, Vaucheria, Ectocarpus, and Polysiphonia

SS

ii)

Mycology

Study of Rhizopus, Ascobolus/ Peziza, Agaricus, and Polyporus

SS

iii)

Bryology

Study of morphology, anatomy and reproductive structures in Riccia, Marchantia, Anthoceros, and Funaria

SS

iv)

Pteridology

Study of morphology, anatomy and reproductive structures inLycopodium, Selaginella, Equisetum, Marsilea, Dryopteris, andPteris

KKT

v)

Gymnology

Study of morphology, anatomy and reproductive structures in Cycas, Pinus, and Gnetum.

KKT

vi)

Palaeobotany

Study of fossil slides of :Lepidodendron, Lepidocarpon, Sphenophyllum, Lyginopteris, Medullosa, and Glossopteris.

KKT

vii)

Morphology

Study of morphological structures with special reference to peculiarities.

SS

viii)

Anatomy

Organization of shoot and root apical meristem (from whole mounts/ vertical sections); microscopic studies of trichomes , stomata, sclerideis, raphaides, cystolith, starch grains, and lenticels; anatomy of root , stem (Leucas/ Leonurus), and leaf (Nerium); study of xylem and phloem by maceration technique; study of anomalous secondary growth in Tinospora, Bignonia, Boerhaavia, Tecoma, and Strycnos

SS

B.Sc (General) Botany Part I

Paper I                                                                                                   Full Marks: 45

 

Sl. No.

Name of the Topic

Assigned Teacher

     1.

Diversity of microbes and cryptogams

i)

Prokaryotes and viruses : Prokaryotes – structure,nutrition,reproduction and economic importance; general account of viruses

SS

ii)

Algae: general characters;classification and economic importance;general account of Cyanophyceae; important features and life history of members of : Chlorophyceae- Oedogonium, Chara; Xanthophyceae – Vaucheria; Phaeophyceae – Ectocarpus; Rhodophyceae – Polysiphonia

SS

iii)

Fungi: general characters ; classification and economic importance; important features and life history of members of : Mastigomycotina – Phytophthora; Zygomycotina – Rhizopus;Ascomycotina – Saccharomyces; Ascobolus ; Basidiomycotina – Puccinia

SS

     iv)

Bryophytes : amphibians of plant kingdom displaying alternations of generations; structure,reproduction and classification of Hepaticopsida (Marchantia); Anthocerotopsida (Anthoceros);Bryopsida (Funaria)

KKT

  v)

Pteridophytes : important characteristics of Psilopsida, Lycopsida, Sphenopsida and Pteropsida; structure, reproduction in Rhynia, Psilotum, Lycopodium, Equisetum,andMarsilea.

KKT

 

                Paper- II               Full marks: 45

SL.

                                                                       Name of the topic

Assigned Teacher

1.

Diversity of seed plants and their systematic

 

 

Characteristics of seed plants; evolution of the seed habit; seed plants with (angiosperms) and without (gymnosperms) fruits

General features of gymnosperms and their classification; geological time scale; fossilization; fossil gymnosperms

Morphology of vegetative and reproductive parts; anatomy of root, stem and leaf; reproduction and life cycle of Pinus, Cycas, and Gnetum.

KKT

 

Inflorescence: definition; types of racemose and cymose inflorescences

Flower : types and forms; cohesion and adhesion of stamens; placentation; ovule (typical); self and cross pollination; pre-fertilization process; endosperm and embryo (dicot); fruit and seed types and their dispersal

Principles of nomenclature; identification and classification of plants; importance of herbaria

Systems of classification: Bentham and Hooker’s and Engler&Prantl’s systems

Diagnostic chacters  and economic importance of the following families with examples : Magnoliaceae, Brassicaceae, Malvaceae, Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Solanaceae, Verbenaceae, Lamiaceae, Apiaceae, Orchidaceae, and Poaceae

SS

2.

Anatomy

SS

 

Mechanical tissue

Root-stem transition

Secondary growth – normal and anomalous

 

 

                Paper-III (Practical)         Full marks-60

SL.

                                                                  Name of the topic

Assigned Teacher

 

Work out, drawing, description, microscopic preparation and identification of the following:

 

i)

Algae : Nostoc, Oedogonium, and Chara

SS

ii)

Fungi :Rhizopus, Ascobolus /Peziza, and Puccinia

SS

iii)

Bryophytes : Marchantiaand Funaria

SS

iv)

Pteridophytes : Lycopodium, Equisetum, and  Marsilea

KKT

v)

Gymnosperms

Morphological identification of megasporophyll and microsporophyll of Cycasand male female cone of Pinus

T.S. of Cycas leaflet and Pinus needle; L.S. of ovule ofGnetum (from permanent slides)

KKT

vi)

Taxonomy of angiosperms

Dissection, drawing, and description of angiospermic plants with floral parts, flotal formulae and floral diagrams of the following families : Brassicaceae, Fabaceae, Malvaceae, Solanaceae, Verbenaceae, and Lamiaceae

Spot identification of locally available plants included under sylla

SS

vii)

Anatomy

Anatomical studies following double staining method of the following materials:

Stem: Sunflower, cucurbit, maize, and Mirabilis

Root : gram, orchid, and Arum

Leaf : Nerium

SS

 

 

 

B.Sc (General) Botany Part II

Paper-IV:  Cell Biology and Genetics                                                                                                    Full marks-45

Sl.No..

Name of the Topic

Assigned Teacher

1.

The cell envelopes: plasma membrane- lipid bilayer structure; functions; the cell wall.

SS

2.

Structure and function of other organelles: golgi complex, ER, ribosomes, nucleus, peroxysomes, vacuoles.

SS

3.

Chromosome organization: morphology; ultrastructure, centromere  and telomere; chromosome structural alternations; variations in chromosome number- aneupolidy, polyploidy; sex chromosomes.

SS

4.

DNA: structure; replication; model; genetic code.

SS

5.

Cell division: mitosis; meiosis.

SS

6.

Genetic inheritance: mendelism; preliminary idea of linkage and crossing over; allelic and non allelic interactions

KKT

7.

Gene expression: structure of gene; protein biosynthesis

KKT

8.

Genetic variation: mutations; spontaneous and induced; transposable genetic elements.

KKT

9.

Extra nuclear genome: presence and function of mitochondrial and plastid DNA; plasmids.

KKT

 

PAPER V                                                                                                                                                    Full marks-45

 

1.

PLANT PHYSIOLOGY AND BIOCHEMISTRY                                                                     

 

i.

Mechanisms of absorption of water and minerals; transpiration-definition and types, mechanism and significance.

KKT

ii.

Mineral nutrition: essential elements and their role.

KKT

iii.

Translocation of organic solutes, ascent of sap.

SS

iv.

Respiration: types; aerobic and anaerobic; fermentation; glycolysis; Kreb’s cycle; electron transport system; R.Q.

SS

v.

Photosynthesis: photosynthetic pigments; mechanism; C3 and C4 pathway, law of limiting factors.

SS

vi.

Biological nitrogen fixation.

SS

vii.

Photoperiodism: definition; long day and short day plants with examples.

SS

viii.

Plant hormones; definition: role of IAA, gibberellins, and abscissic acid.

KKT

ix.

Carbohydrates: mono, di and oligosachharides- elementary idea.

KKT

x.

Proteins: primary, secondary and tertiary structures-elementary idea.

KKT

xi.

Enzymes- definition and properties.

KKT

2.

ECOLOGY

i.

Factors affecting vegetation

SS

ii.

Plant succession

SS

iii.

Adaptations of hydrophytes, xerophytes, and halophytes.

Study of ecosystem.

SS

iv.

Conservation of forest.

SS

v.

PLANT GEOGRAPHY

 

vi.

Phytogeographical regions of India (D. Chatterjee, 1960)

KKT

vii.

Characteristic regions of Sunderbans and Eastern Himalayas.

KKT

 

PAPER VI  (Practical)                                                                                                                                              Full marks-60

1.

Cytology

 

i.

Study of mitotic stages from squash preparation (root tip of onion)

KKT

ii.

Identification of following meiotic stages from permanent slides: diakinesis, metaphase I, anaphase I, metaphase II and anaphase II.

SS

2.

Plant physiology

 

i.

Demonstration of plasmolysis

KKT

ii.

Measurement of leaf area (graphical method) and determination of rate of transpiration per unit area by weighing method.

SS

iii.

Imbibitions of water by dry seeds- proteinaceous and fatty seeds.

SS

iv.

Determination of  evolution of oxygen during photosynthesis (using graduated tubes) against dark control.

KKT

v.

Evolution of carbon dioxide during aerobic respiration and measurement of volume.

SS

3.

Biochemistry

 

i.

Qualitative determination of glucose, starch, tartaric acid and citric acid.

SS

B.Sc (General) Botany Part III

Paper VII     Full Marks: 60

Sl. No.

Name of the Topic

Assigned Teacher

1.

Plant Pathology

 

i.

Terms and definitions: disease; inoculum;  pathogenicity ;resistance; Koch’s postulate; plant quarantine

SS

ii.

Symptoms, causal organism and control of: late  blight of potato, brown spot of rice, rust of wheat, and stem rot of jute

SS

2.

Plant Biotechnology

 

i.

Recombinant DNA technology; a preliminary idea of restriction enzymes, vectors, cloning, selection,and identification; application in plant improvement.

KKT

ii.

Tissue culture: totipotency, techniques of embryo culture, pollen culture and meristem culture; application..

SS

3.

Plant breeding

Propagation, cloning, grafting, bonsai and aquaculture.

KKT

4.

Utilization of plants

 

i.

Bio-fertilizers: N2 fixing microbes; VAM fungi; Azolla and their role in agriculture

SS

ii.

Study of economically important plants(scientific names, family, parts used and uses) as follows:

Food plants: rice, wheat and potato

Fibres: cotton and jute

Vegetable oils: groundnut and mustard

Spices: ginger and cumin

Beverages: tea and coffee

Medicinal plants: use and phytochemistry of Cinchona, Citronella, Catharanthus, and Azadirachta.

Cultivation of edible mushroom: Pleurotus.

SS

               

Paper VIII: Practical                                                                                                   Full Marks: 40

Sl .No.

Name of the Topic

Assigned Teacher

Plant pathology, Microbiology, Plant breeding, Plant Biotechnology

 

1.

Acquaintance of common laboratory equipment; balances, autoclave, incubator and centrifuge

KKT

2.

Identification of diseased plant specimens and causal organisms as described  in theoretical syllabus

SS

3.

Demonstration and preparation of media and sterilization process

KKT

4.

Demonstration of sub-culturing and isolation of pathogen

KKT

5.

Histopathological studies on any four diseases of major crop plants

SS

6.

Preparation of curd and study of curd organisms

SS

7.

Spawn preparation and cultivation of mushroom

KKT

8.

Demonstration of grafting and layering

KKT

9.

Visit to local agricultural farms (2)

KKT &SS

 

KKT= Dr. Kishore Kumar Thapa

SS= Sanjib Saha